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History of Iran timeline,The Afshar

Nadir Quli, the son of Imam Quli, was a member of the Qarakhlu clan of the Afshar tribe. He was born in Muharram 1100/ November 1688. The details of his childhood years are not known, but from the time he was a young man he occupied himself with the life of a soldier. At the age of 31 he married and afterwards he established himself as ruler over the stronghold of Kalat, a natural fortress in Khorasan. At 39 he joined the service of Shah Tahmasb, the son of Shah Sultan Husayn, who was attempting to win for himself the crown which had been worn by his father. In this period, during four years and four major battles (those of Mehmandust, Damqan; Sardara - ye Khar, Tehran; Murcha - khurt, Isfahan; and Zarqan, Fars) Nadir exterminated the Afghans, and during at least three other great campaigns and small battles he forced the Ottomans, who were in possession of the major part of the west and northwest of Iran, to evacuate their occupied territories. As a result of the influence of the king and his own genius, Nadir gained for himself a tremendous degree of power. In 1145/1732 he deposed his benefactor and in the year 1148/1736 at the Council of the Plain of Moghan, at the junction of the Kor and Arax Rivers, he was elected by the nobles of Iran to the kingship; on 24 Shawwal March of the same year he was crowned. From the plain of Moghan Nadir headed for eastern Iran with the aim of conquering Qandahar, and after accomplishing this he set out for India. In Dhu'l - Qi'dah 1151/February 1739 he defeated Muhammad Shah the Mogul at the Kernal Plain and on 3 Safar 1152/15 May 1739 he called together as assembly of the nobles of India and bestowed the rule of India once again upon Muhammad Shah. In return for this noble gesture, the Indian emperor presented his treasuries to Nadir and in addition entrusted to him the kingdoms on the other side of Tibet and Kashmir to the point where the latter river joins the Indian Ocean as well as the provinces of Tatta and the ports and fortresses of Batu. After returning from India and arriving at Kabol, Nadir set out in pursuit of Khudayar Khan 'Abbasi, the ruler of Sind, and went as far as Omarkut. Then he turned towards Transoxania, and on 19 Jumada'l - thani 1153/11 September 1740 Abu'l - Fadhl Khan, the ruler of Bokhara, surrendered to him without resistance and turned over to his control the lands on the left side of the Oxus River. In Sha'ban 1153/November 1740 Nadir defeated Ilbaris Khan, the ruler ofKhwarazm, and annexed the whole of that province. From this date until 11 Jumada'l thani 1160/20 June 1748, the day of his death, Nadir was a great king, one who also realized naval bases on both the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf.

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