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Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
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Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
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Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
overnight:
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Buyids

The origins of the Buyid (Bawayhid) dynasty go back to the time when Abu Shuja Buya and his three sons, Ali, Hasan and Ahmad joined the forces of Makan Kaki. Afterwared the three sons enterd the service of Mardawij, by whom Ali, the service of pointed governor of Karaj (between Hamedan and Borujerd). Several years laters Ali added Isfahan to his domain and his brother Hasan gained control of Shiraz, while the third brother, Ahmad, became ruler of Kerman. In the same year, 334/945-6, Ahmad set out for Khuzestan which along with Baghdad he subsequently conquered. The caliph, al - Mustakfi Billah, gave the title Muizz al - Dawla to Ahmad, Imad al - Dawla to Ali and Rukn al - Dawla to Hasan. It should be mentioned that it was from this time that the Baghdad caliphate was under the control of the Persian Buyids; and it was not long before Muizz al - Dawla blinded al - Mustakfi and removed him from the caliphate, replacing him with al - Muti Lillah, the son of the caliph al - Muqtadir. The most famous of the Buyid sultans was Adhud al - Dawla Fana Khusraw, the son of Rukn al - Dawla, who ruled in Fars from the year 338/949 and extended his domain to the southern region of the Persian Gulf and Oman. Among his famous monuments are the Amir Dam on the Kur River in Fars, the remains of which are still to be seen, and the Adhudi hospital, which he founded in Fars in 368/978-9. The Buyids had four main centers of government. The first was Baghdad, where the following members of the dynasty ruled in succession from 334/945-6 to 440/1048: Muizz al - Dawla, Izz al - Dawla, Adhud al - Dawla, Samsam al - Dawla, Sharaf al - Dawla, Baha al - Dawla, Musharrif al - Dawla, Jalal al - Dawla, Abu Kalijar Marzban and al - Malik al - Rahim Khusraw Firuz. The second was Fars and Khuzestan, where Imad al - Dawla, Adhud al - Dawla, Sharaf al - Dawla, Samsam. al - Dawla, Baha al - Dawla, Sultan al - Dawla, Mushrrif al - Dawla, Abu Kalijar and al - Malik al - Rahim ruled from 322/934 to 440/1048. The third was Kerman where Muizz al - Dawla, Adhud al - Dawla, Samsam al - Dawla, Baha al - Dawla, Qiwam al - Dawla, Abu Kalijar and Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun ruled from 324/936 to 440/1048. The fourth was Jebal (Rey, Hamedan, Isfahan and part of Azarbaijan), where Imad al - Dawla, Rukn al - Dawla. Muayyid al - Dawla, Ala al - Dawla, Kakuya, Fakhr al - Dawla and Majd al - Dawla ruled from 320/932 to 420/1029. The Buyid government in Jebal was transferred to the Ghaznavids in 420/1029 after the conquest of Rey by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi, while in Fars, Khuzestan and Baghdad the Buyids were overthrown in 447/1055 by Toghril Beg the Seljuk. In Kerman the Buyid princes surrendered their rule to Malik Qavurt Seljuki in the year 444/1052-3.

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