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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Ghaznavids

Sebuktigin, the son - in - law of Alptigin, became ruler of Ghazni in the year 366/977. From there he occupied the surrounding regions, such as Zamin Davar, Qosdar, Bamiyan, Tokharestan and Ghur, and founded a small state in southeastern Iran. After his death in 387/997, his son Sultan Mahmud was able to establish a state relatively worthy of respect. By conquering Sistan, Gharjestan and Jozjanan, Mahmud extended his father's territory, and with the signing of a treaty with Ilek - Khan, the ruler of Transoxania,he established the Oxus River as the border between the two states. Afterwareds, in 408/1017 - 8, Mahmud conquered Khwarazm and in 419/1028 he annexed Gorgan. In addition his son, Sultan Masud, conquered Tabarestan in 425/1034. To the southeast Sultan Mahmud invaded India sixteen times, conquered the Punjab and Kashmir and advanced on the one hand to Qannuj and Kalanjar and on the other to the peninsula of Gojarat. But these invasions can not be considered among Mahmud's permanent conquests, for in each case after defeating the garrisons and plundering the temples he returned to Ghazni without appointing a governor for the defeated regions. Hence the border remains the Indus River and its western branch, which passes near Peshavar. During Sultan Mahmud's reign, southern Iran was in the hands of the successors of Adhud al - Dawla. The various branches of this family in Kerman, Fars and for the most part warred among themselves to Khuzestan gain ascendancy over the others. Towards the end of his reign, Sultan Mahmud turned attention toward western Iran and in 420/1029 he took Rey from Abu Talib Rustam ibn Fakhr al - Dawla, entitled Majd al - Dawla, and turned the government of this city and of Isfahan over to his son Masud. Masud also extended his territory to the west by capturing Qazvin and Hamedan. At this time the Rawwadi dynasty was ruling in Azarbaijan while Iraq and the western lands of Iran such as Kordestan, Kermanshah and Lorestan were under the domination of the Abbasid caliph. After the death of Sultan Mahmud the Seljuks came to power in northern Khorasan and Sultan Masud was not able to hold his ground against them. In 432/1041 he was killed on his way to India. Masud's successors lost Ghazni and the southeastern sections of Iran to the Seljuks and the Ghaznavids came to an end in 582/1186-7 when the Ghurids captured their last capital city, Lahore.

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