Capitals of the Persian Empire
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Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
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Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Ilam

Traces of Civilization in Iran Before the First Half of the Fifth MillenniumB.C.The scientific excavation and study of the ancient caves and mounds of Iran by archaeologists hasplaced at the disposal of scholars a great deal of information about man's past. The oldest artifact which has so far come to light on the Iranian plateau from the prehistoric period is a stone hand - axefound near Kermanshah which is approximately 100,000 years old.After the <> man gradually discovered the secrets of how to grow plants and domesticate animals. Archaeologists call this new period that of the beginning of settled,agricultural society. The prehistoric cultures of Iran are divided in to two main groups: the north andnortheastern cultures and the south and southwestern cultures. The cultures of the north and northeast are as follows:The Seyalk Culture The Seyalk CultureArtifacts of this culture were found for the first time in Seyalk Hills near Kashan, and thus the culturewas called by this name. The deepest level of excavation of this hill brought to light relics andremains of elementary agricultural societies on the Iranian plateau. The deep levels of Cheshma - yeAli hill have also revealed remains from this culture. The approximate date of the Seyalk Culture is the beginning of the fifth millenium B.C. The Cheshma - ye Ali Culture The Cheshma - ye Ali Culture The first remains from this prehistoric culture were found in Cheshma - ye Ali hill in southeasternTehran, thus given the period its name. The bone artifacts and stone ware of the period are beautifullymade; the art of making pottery has reached quite an advanced stage of perfection and the theirwares. This period begins from the middle of the fifth millenium B.C. The Hesar (Hissar) Culture The Hesar (Hissar) Culture Remains from this culture were first discovered in Hesar Hill near Damqan, from whence the name.In this period there was a great deal of interrelationship between the various areas of Iran and theother regions of the Middle East. Metal artifacts and pottery and stone ware of the beauty have been found from of the arts and crafts of this culture. During the past ten years archaeologists haveuncovered other ancient sites which indicate that human societies existed in Iran before the Seyalkculture. Among these one can mention the sites of Zagha on the Qazvin plain and Hajji Firuz on theSolduz plain. The culture of the south and southwest The culture of the south and southwest is knownby the name of the Buff Ware culture, because of the particular kind of pottery which it produced. This pottery first appeared contemporary with the cultures of the Iranian plateau and gradually spreaduntil it came to be found over the whole of the ancient world. The various periods of this culture are known by the names of Bakun, Jafar Abad, Jari and Shush.

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