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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline,The Khans

Chingiz - Khan divided the lands he had conquered among his sons during his own lifetime. Iran, however, he did not bestow upon any of them, and until 651/1253 it was administered by governors sent from Mongolia. In that year Hulegu - Khan was sent by his brother Megu - Qaan to conquer the fortresses of the Ismailis, overthrow the Abbasid caliph and occupy the territories which had not yet been taken by the Mongols. His successors in Iran made up the independent Il - Khanid dynasty. To the northeast the domain of the Il - Khans bordered on the territory occupied by the successors of Chaghatai, the son of Chingiz, which included Transoxania and eastern and western Torkestan. The Oxus River always remained the border between the territories of these two families. To the southeast the border of the Il - Khanid territory was the Indus River and the Punjab, which had been occupied by the Mongols at the time of Chingiz. To the west the Mongols reached the borders of Syria, which was occupied by the Egyptians, at the time of Hulegu - Khah, and in fact the Euphrates River made up the western border of Il - Khanid territory. Although the Mongols were sometimes able to conquer parts of Syria, they were always forced to retreat to the regions east of the Euphrates by the strong Egyptian resistance. After the fall of the Seljuks of Asia Minor, the Il - Khans extended their northwestern borders to the edges of the Byzantine Empire. To the north the Il - Khanid territory included Darband and Georgia and bordered upon the areas occupied by the successors of Jochi, another son of Chingiz. Although the Mongols gained control over all of Iran, in some provinces local dynasties ruled semi - independently under their sovereignty. These included the Kart Dynasty of Harat, Ghur and Gharjestan, which continued to rule even after the death of Sultan Abu Said Bahadur Khan, the last of the Il - Khans, and the Qara - Khitai of Kerman, whose rule was put to an end in the year 703/1303 - 4. The province of Fars was under the financial administration of the Il - Khans from the time Hulegu - Khan onward, but it continued to possess a degree of independence until the year 684/1285 - 6, when Abish Khatun, the last of the Atabegs of Fars, was still alive. In southwesten Iran or the present - day Bakhtiyari region and Lorestan, the Great and the Little Atabegs of Lor continued their political life under Mongol sovereignty. The local rulers of Hormuz on the islands and shores of the Persian Gulf, the Shabankara kings of eastern Gars and the rulers of Lar in the city of Lar in Fars also administered small local governments, for the most art under Mongol control. Sistan was in the hands of local rulers who were the successors of the Saffarids.

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