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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
overnight:
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
اtrip length: 10 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
overnight:
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
pic
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline,The Pahlavi

Traces of Civilization Iran in the Second Half the Fifth andBeginning of the Fourth Millennia B.C.The Period of the Buff Ware CultureThe remains of the Buff Ware Culture have been found in many other areasbesides the south and southwest of Iran, for in its period of expansion and at itsheight this culture existed throughout the whole breadth of the ancient world. Itbegan in the first part of the fifth millennium B.C., living remains in the ancient mounds of the Khuzestan plain and the surrounding regions. Gradually the distribution of its artifacts, and in particular its pottery, underwent expansion,and in the latter parts of the fifth millennium and the beginning of the fourth millennium B.C. the Buff Ware Culture extended over all of Iran and theneighboring regions, that is, from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus Valley.The influence of the pottery of this culture in the Iranian plateau manifesteditself during the period of the Hesar Culture. Although the remains and artifactsof this culture have been found throughout the ancient world, to a degree theyhave been influenced by local artistes styles. The most beautiful examples of the pottery of this culture at its height have been found in the mounds of Shush Bakun, Seyalk and Saggez Abad. The Iranian Plateau in the Third and Second Millennia B.C.The archaeological evidence which has thus far come to light shows that thepeople of Iran possessed an extremely advanced civilization as long ago as7000 years. The western part of the Iranian plateau entered the historical eraabout 5000 years ago when the cuneiform script was invented. The people ofthe eastern sections of the plateau, however, remained without the advantagesof this Elamites form of writing, and the only information we have about them isthe remains founds in tombs. These show that the remains of Iran in the thirdand second millennia B.C. were people of a peace - loving, agricultural andartistic nature. Nevertheless, the number of tombs excavated until now is notsufficient to come to any exact and comprehensive conclusions. In many areasof Iran there are archaeological remains relevant to these two millennia whichfor various reasons have not yet come to light. Thus it must not be thought that the inhabited areas of the Iranian plateau in the third and second millennia B.C. were limited to those indicated on the map. It is probable that eventually thewhole surface of the map will be covered by points which will gradually bediscovered. From the middle of the third millennium B.C. the form, design and coloring of implements and the manner of burying the dead gradually changed, so that bythe end of this millennium the appearance of graves and of the artifacts foundwithin them had taken to itself a completely new aspect. We can conclude fromthese changes that new peoples had gradually entered Iran from the east, for in the east the intensity of these changes is greater than in the west, and fartherwe move from the northeast towards the central regions of Iran such as Kashanand Nahavand, the less is the intensity. In the middle of the second millennium Iran was invaded from several directions by peoples from the north. First, groups of Aryans who had been occupied with grazing their flocks ofsheep and goats in the wide pasturelands located to the northeast of theIranian plateau entered the plateau itself. A number of these groups went withtheir flocks to the fertile areas around the shores of the Caspian Sea and settledin the area between the peaks of the Alborz mountain range and the edge of the Caspian forests, which contained excellent pasturage. In the beginning ofthe second millennium B.C. the Hittites crossed the Bosporus straits andentered Asia Minor, the Mitannis found their way through the Caucasus into the Anatolian Peninsula and the Kassites came Downward by the same route towards the Zagros Mountains and settled in the western regions of the Iranianplateau. Other Aryan peoples also entered Iran from the northeast during thesecond half of the second millennium B.C. and gave their name to the land. Inthis way during the last parts of the second millennium B.C. the Iranian plateauwas made ready for the great monarchy which came into being during the following millennium. Gradually all of the scattered centers which had come intobeing separately during the space of 3000 years were brought under the controlof a central government.

   
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