Capitals of the Persian Empire
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Ancient and Islamic Iran
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Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Parthians

In the first half of the third century B.C. a confederation of nomadic tribes called the Dahae lived in the northern plains of Hyrcania (Gorgan). One of these tribes, an Iranian people called the Parni, separated from the confederation under the leadership of two brothers, Arsaces and Tiridates, and set out for the valley of Tejend (Ochus). Diodotus, the Satrap of Bactria, blocked their path, and they were forced to head for Hyrcania - Parthia. The Satrap of this province, Andragora, was killed in a resulting war. Arsaces and Tiridates are considered the founders of the Parthian (or Arsacid) dynasty.The <>, which began on April 1, 247 B.C., was apparently calculated from thecoronation of the first of the Parthian kings. The Parthians took advantage of the weakness of the Seleucids and gradually conquered the latter'sterritories as far as the Euphrates River. The Parthian Empire was made up of the following regions: Hyrcania, the capital of which was Zadrakarta; Astavene, whose capital was Asaak mear present - day Quchan; Parthyene whose capital was Mithradakert near today's Eshq Abad, the Nisa of the Islamic period; Apavarcticene, or the Abivard of the Islamic period; Margiane, the Marv of the Islamic period; Aria,the Islamic period's Harat; Anauoa, along with the cities of Farah, Bust and Neh; Darangiane; Sakestan or Parctacene; Arachosia or the later Qandahar; Rhaga or Rey; Choarene or Khwar; Comisene, or the Qumes of the Islamic period, in which was located the city of Hecatompylis; Seleucia, located on the Tigris River, along with Ctesiphon, the later capital of the Parthians; Dura -Europus, on the Euphrates; al - Hazr or Hatra; Artemita; eastern, western and upper Media; Tapuriaand Traziana; the country of the Mardians in the Alborz Mountains; and the southern and easternshores of the Caspian Sea. Vassal states of the Parthians included the following: the kingdom ofMesene, located south of Babylonia and also known as Characene; the kingdom of the region ofElam, known as Elymais, which included Khuzestan and a portion of Lorestan, and the capital ofwhich was near Izeh or Malmir; the kingdoms located in the provinces of Pars and Kerman; thekingdom of Osroene in northwestern Mesopotamia, whose capital was Edessa; the kingdom ofAdiabene, or ancient Assyria, whose capital was Arbela on the Zab River; the kingdom of Gordyeneof Cordyene,or the land of the Kardush, in south Armenia; the kingdom of Azarbaijan (Atropatene);the kingdom of Armenia; and the Indo - Parthian dynasty, which was located in the Indus valley andamong the important cities of which was Taxila. The important centers of Parthian government during various periods were the cities of Dara, in the region of Abivard; Nisaye of Parthaunisa, where the first Parthian kings were buried; Hecatompylos, in Qumes between\~Damqan~\~Shahrud~.

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