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Ancient and Islamic Iran
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Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline,The Qajars

On the very day that Karim Khan died, 13 Safar 1193/2 March 1779, Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar set out to seize the throne of Iran. Aqa Muhammad Khan was the son of Muhammad Hasan Qajar, the rival of Nadir Shah and Karim Khan Zand, of the Ashaqabash clan of the Qajar tribe. In the course of eighteen years he attained his goal, eradicating the feudal system which had dominated during the Zand period and extending the borders of the country approximately what they had been in the Safavid period. The war between Aqa Muhammad Khan and Lutf Ali Khan, the last king of the Zand dynasty, lasted for six years, from 1203/1788 tp 1209/1794. In Ramadan 1209/April 1995 Aqa Muhammad Khan invaded Georgia and occupied the northwestern ,lands of Iran as far as the Caucasus Mountains. He chose Tehran as his capital and in 1210.1796 was coronated in that city. In the same year he occupied all of Khorasan as well as Balkh. In 1211/1796 he set for the Caucasus to war against the Russians but on 21 Dhul' Hijja/18 May of the same year he was killed near the stronghold of Shishi. During the reign of Fath Ali Shah, Aqa Muhammad Khan successor, a completely new situation was brought about because of the French Revolution and the appearance of Napoleon, the rule of Alexander I in Russia and the imperialistic policies of the British East India Company in India. Iran was suddenly thrown into the area of international politics, although Fath Ali Shah and the members of his court were completely unaware of the nature of those politics of what was happening in the world at large. As a result Iran continued to suffer severe political and territorial losses. In this period, two great wars were fought with Tsarist Russia. The first of these, which lasted ten years (from 1218/1803 to 1228/812), led to the Treaty of Golestan, the third article of which reads as follows: "His Highness ... the king of Iran considers the provinces of Qarabagh and Ganja; the khanates of Shakki, Shirvain,Qobba, Darband and Baku; all areas of the provinces of Talesh which are now occupied by Russia; all of Daghestan and Georgia; the areas of Shura - gol, Achuqbash, korna, Monkril and Abkhaz; all of the areas and lands between the Caucasus and the present determined borders; and the lands and people of the Caucasus adjoining the Caspian Sea to be belonging and attached to the Imperial State of Russia." The second war lasted two years (from 1241/1826 to 1243/1828) and resuled in the Treaty of Torkomanchay, the third aritcle of which reads as follows: "His Highness the Shahanshah of Iran entrusts on the part of himself, his descendants and his heirs the Khanates of Irvan situated on both sides of the Arax River as well as the khanates of Nakhjavan to the absolute ownership of Russia." Fath Ali Shah was succeeded by his nephew Muhammad Shah, who reigned for fourteen years. During this period Iran's borders underwent no changes, and only the Treaty of Erzerum (16 Jumada'l n- thani 1262/13 June 1846) is worthy of mention. As a result of this treaty, the border disputes between Iran and the Ottoman Empire were partly settled. After Muhammad Shah his son Nasir al - Din Shah came to power and ruled for 49 years. By means of the Treaty of Paris (Rajab 1273/ March 1857) England forced Nasir al - Din Shah to abandon any claim to the region of Harat or the provinces of Afghanistan, and subsequently through various arbitrations it turned over to Afghanistan part of Sistan. The Russians, who had begun to penetrate into Iran's northeastern provinces during the reign of Peter the Great, moved swiftly forward during this period and finally, by means of the treaty of 23 Muharram 1299/9 December 1881, they reached their present borders. Again, Great Britain did not remain idle but during the course of these events, by political means and by establishing relations with the Baluchi khans, proceeded to annex a portion of Balouchestan to its own territories.

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