Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
اtrip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Seleucids

The Seleucid Empire at the time of its founder, Seleucus Nicator, included the greater part of boththe Achaemenid Empire and the territories of Alexander. Seleucus ruled over all of Iran. Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Asia Minor (with the exception of Armenia, Pontus, Paphlagniaand Bithynia) and Alexander's European territories. Atropatene (Azarbaijan) was independent, andChandragopta, the King of India, had founded a kingdom to the east of the Indus River, the capital of which was Pataliputra (Patna). The different nationalities possessing a variety of cultures and traditions within this extensive Seleucid Empire made the continuation of its existence more difficult. For this reason the Seleucids continued Alexander's policy of Hellenizing the conquered territoties.Greek and Macedonian immigrants were settled in many of the cities of Iran, which were then givenGreek names. Thus the city of Rhgae (Rey), for example, was called Europus, today's Nahavand wascalled Laodicea (the Arabic Ladhiqiyya), and Haraiara (Harat) was called Alexandria. Sometimes new cities were also built. These steps, however, did not produce the desired result and in the thirdcentury B.C. the Seleucid Empire was attacked from both within and without. In the year 255 B.C.Bactria achieved independence under the leadership of Diodotus, from the years 250 to 248 - 7 B.C. the province of Parthia gained its independence, and at the same time to the west the Seleucids lostthe province of Cappadocia. Some of these lost territories were recaptured by Antiochus III; but hewas forced to recognize officially the independence of Pergamum, Bactria and Parthia. As a result of the Treaty of Apamea in 188 B.C. all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains was lost by theSeleucids. In the year 145 B.C. Ptolemy VI captured Lebanon and Palestine from them and in 140B.C. the Parthians occupied Babylonia and southern Mesopotamia. The last Seleucid kings ruledonly in Syria and a part of Mesopotamia. The city of Seleucia on the Tigris River, founded in theyear 312 B.C. by seleuces I, was for a time the capital was Antioch, located on the Orontes River.

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