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Capitals of the Persian Empire
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History of Iran timeline,The Seljuks

Having received the permission of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi, the Seljuk Turks crossed the Oxus River and settled in northern Khorasan, a province which they subsequently occupied completely during the reign of Mahmud's son, Sultan Masud. In 429/1038 Toghril Beg was crowned as the Seljuk sultan in Neishabur. With the help of his brothers and paternal cousins, Toghril then turned to the occupation of the surrounding areas. In 433/1041 - 2 he took Gorgan and Tabarestan from Anushirwan the Ziyarid; in 434/1042 - 3 he occupied the cities of Eraq - e - Ajam and made Rey the center of his government; in 443/1051 - 2 he took Isfahan and terminated the rule of the Kakuyids in Eraq - e - Ajam; and in 447/1055 he brought the Buyid dynasty to an end with the capture of al - Malik al - Rahim. In 446/1054 Toghril Beg captured Azarbaijan and subjugated Amir Manur Wahsudan Rawwadi, and after taking the cities of Ganja and Malazgerd and the region of Armenia, he reached the borders of the Byzantine Empire. During the reign of Toghril Beg the local states in Iran either ceased to exist or accepted Toghril's rule. Kerman remained in the hands of Qavurt, Toghril's nephew, who had been appointed as its governor and who became founder of the Seljuks of Kerman. During the reign of Alp Arslan and his son Malik - Shah the territory of the Seljuks underwent further expansion. To the west Tajal - Dawla Tutush captured Syria in470/1077 - 8 and founded the Seljuk dynasty of Syria. Sulayman ibn Qutulmush became ruler of Qunya and founded the Seljuk dynasty of Asia Minor (Rum). Through the efforts of these and other Seljuk princes the Seljuk territory to the west was extended to the Mediterranean and to the borders of the Byzantine Empire and the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt. To the east Malik - Shah in 482/1089 invaded Transoxania as far as Uzkand. Also the ruler of Kashghar accepted his sovereignty. After the death of Mali k - Shah, differences arose among his descendants and the Seljuk Empire entered upon the path towards disintegration.Sultan Sanjar was able to rule over all of the Seljuk princes for a short period and to extend Seljuk territory to the east and the northeast by the renewed conquest of Transoxania and by gaining the allegiance of the Ghaznavids. But after his death the Khwarazm - Shahs came to power and in 590/1194 they overthrew the Seljuk of Iraq.

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